Category Archives: science

LOCKING JAWS? IMPOSSIBLE

skull.jpg

The diagram above shows the correct skull structure, jaw alignment, and dentition for mesocephalic breeds of dogs. Mesocephalic refers to those breeds whose length of muzzle approximates the length of the top skull. These breeds when correctly structured have a scissors bite, with the top teeth meeting tightly in front of the bottom teeth.

Most of the breeds of dogs lumped under the ubiquitous heading of “pit bull” are mesocephalic, but some are not.

There is no supernatural structure to these breed’s skull, jaw, or teeth. That any dog is capable of locking its jaw is a myth.

Sound, correct dogs have 42 teeth after the seven month molars erupt. Dogs may exhibit malocclusions, or genetically missing teeth, usually pre-molars.

There are two more types of skull that are displayed in dogs. The brachycephalic which is the very short faced seen in breeds such as the Bulldog, Pug, Boston terrier, Pekingese, American Bulldog, etc. These breeds are predisposed to malocclusions, and to missing teeth due to crowding. These breeds are prognathous jawed, with the lower teeth protruding in front of the top teeth.

The dolichocephalic type of skull is long, and narrow, the muzzle is longer than the top skull. It is common in breeds such as the Borzoi, the Bull Terrier, and the Collie. The long narrow jaws appear to be able to hold more teeth, but these breeds also have 42 teeth.

These are the facts about dog skull configuration.

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RDOWS POSITION STATEMENT ON MANDATORY SPAY/NEUTER

RESPONSIBLE DOG OWNERS OF THE WESTERN STATES

P.O. Box 1406 Newport, WA 99156

Web Site http://www.povn.com/rdows E-mail rdows@povn.com

Blog http://rdows.wordpress.com E-mail List http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rdows

RDOWS POSITION STATEMENT ON MANDATORY SPAY/NEUTER

Responsible Dog Owners of the Western States was formed October 15, 1989 to protect the civil, and Constitutional rights, and interests of dog owners.

Responsible Dog Owners of the Western States is opposed to any government mandated invasive, or non-invasive surgeries being performed upon privately owned domestic pets. Our opposition is based upon both practical, and upon constitutional reasons. There are health risks involved with any invasive, or non-invasive surgery. The least of which is risk of infection, and there is always the risk of any surgery being fatal.

Spaying/neutering has little or no affect upon a bitch or dog’s temperament, in fact the lack of normal hormones may cause mood swings, and unpredictable behavior, and exacerbate a poor temperament. (see attached study Behavioral Assessment of Child-Directed Canine Aggression)

Legal Standpoint: Such a mandate is a taking of personal property rights by a governmental body that has usurped ownership, and use rights in the animal from its rightful owner. The United States of America is not a communist collective in which all people, and their goods are properties of the government. RDOWS upholds the domestic animal owner’s right to choose whether or not to spay, or to neuter his, or her animal. . RDOWS stipulates that an animal’s internal, and external genetalia belong to the owner of the animal. RDOWS claims the rights of ownership for all domestic pet owners based upon tens of thousands of years of proven historical ownership, and of the ancient and honorable profession of animal husbandry.

Responsible Dog Owners of the Western States sees such a mandate as an unconstitutional taking of private property without just compensation, and a violation of the Bill of Rights;

Amendment IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, or the property to be seized

· A violation of Amendment IX. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

· Lastly. A violation of Amendment XIV, Section 1.All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

References:

Salmeri KR, Bloomberg MS, Scruggs SL, Shille V.. Gonadectomy in immature dogs: effects on skeletal, physical, and behavioral development. JAVMA 1991;198:1193-1203
http://www.grca.org/healthsurvey.pdf
Grumbach MM. Estrogen, bone, growth and sex: a sea change in conventional wisdom. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000;13 Suppl 6:1439-55.
Gilsanz V, Roe TF, Gibbens DT, Schulz EE, Carlson ME, Gonzalez O, Boechat MI. Effect of sex steroids on peak bone density of growing rabbits. Am J Physiol. 1988 Oct;255(4 Pt 1):E416-21.
Slauterbeck JR, Pankratz K, Xu KT, Bozeman SC, Hardy DM. Canine ovariohysterectomy and orchiectomy increases the prevalence of ACL injury. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Dec;(429):301-5.
Spain CV, Scarlett JM, Houpt KA. Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in dogs. JAVMA 2004;224:380-387.
Ware WA, Hopper DL. Cardiac tumors in dogs: 1982-1995. J Vet Intern Med 1999 Mar-Apr;13(2):95-103
Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, Glickman NW, Glickman LT, Waters D, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov;11(11):1434-40
Ru G, Terracini B, Glickman LT. Host related risk factors for canine osteosarcoma. Vet J. 1998 Jul;156(1):31-9.
Obradovich J, Walshaw R, Goullaud E. The influence of castration on the development of prostatic carcinoma in the dog. 43 cases (1978-1985). J Vet Intern Med 1987 Oct-Dec;1(4):183-7
http://www.akcchf.org/pdfs/whitepapers/Biennial_National_Parent_Club_Canine_Health_Conference.pdf
Meuten DJ. Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th Edn. Iowa State Press, Blackwell Publishing Company, Ames, Iowa, p. 575
Stocklin-Gautschi NM, Hassig M, Reichler IM, Hubler M, Arnold S. The relationship of urinary incontinence to early spaying in bitches. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 57:233-6, 2001
Pessina MA, Hoyt RF Jr, Goldstein I, Traish AM. Differential effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on vaginal structural integrity. Endocrinology. 2006 Jan;147(1):61-9.
Kim NN, Min K, Pessina MA, Munarriz R, Goldstein I, Traish AM. Effects of ovariectomy and steroid hormones on vaginal smooth muscle contractility. Int J Impot Res. 2004 Feb;16(1):43-50.
Aaron A, Eggleton K, Power C, Holt PE. Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in male dogs: a retrospective analysis of 54 cases. Vet Rec. 139:542-6, 1996
Panciera DL. Hypothyroidism in dogs: 66 cases (1987-1992). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 204:761-7 1994
Howe LM, Slater MR, Boothe HW, Hobson HP, Holcom JL, Spann AC. Long-term outcome of gonadectomy performed at an early age or traditional age in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Jan 15;218(2):217-21. This article is available for download in Adobe Acrobat PDF format Early Spay Considerations (pdf).
ENDOGENOUS GONADAL HORMONE EXPOSURE AND BONE SARCOMA RISK

http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/11/11/1434.pdf

Cherie Graves, Chairwoman, WA, (509) 447-2821

Judy Schreiber-Dwornick, Assistant to the Chair, Director at Large, rdowsdirectoratlarge@gmail.com

Hermine Stover, Secretary, Press Liaison, CA, hermine@endangeredspecies.com

Mary Schaeffer, Finance Director, finedogs@hotmail.com

Arizona Director, John Bowen johnalldogs@sprintmail.com

California Director, Jan Dykema bestuvall@sbcglobal.net

Illinois Director, Elizabeth Pensgard bpensgard@yahoo.com

Indiana Director, Charles Coffman candkcoffman@comcast.net

Iowa Director, Leisa Boysen rdows_iowa@yahoo.com

Mississippi Director, Dan Crutchfield farmer1@telepak.net

Nevada Director, Ken Sondej 4winds@viawest.net

Ohio Director, Tiffany Skotnicky ohdirrdows@yahoo.com

Oklahoma Director, Jade Harris aadrlegislation@yahoo.com

Tennessee Director, Gina Cotton ginacotton@msn.com

Texas Director, Alvin Crow crobx@austin.rr.com

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National Safety Council: Cause of death in 2003

Cause of death in 2003
Number of deaths per year
One-year odds
Lifetime odds

Captive non-human primate
0*
0
0

Captive bear
0.125**
1 in 2,416,000,000
1 in 32,000,000

Captive elephant
0.81**
378,000,000
5,000,000

Captive big/exotic cat
1**
302,000,000
4,000,000

Captive reptile
1.5***
201,000,000
2,700,000

Fireworks discharge
11
26,440,910
340,733

Contact with hot tap-water
26
11,186,539
144,156

Flood
26
11,186,539
144,156

Bitten or struck by dog
32
9,089,063
117,127

Earthquake and other earth movements
32
9,089,063
117,127

Struck by or against another person
39
7,457,692
96,104

Lightning
47
6,188,298
79,746

Contact with hornets, wasps and bees
66
4,406,818
56,789

Cataclysmic storm (****)
75
3,878,000
49,974

Animal rider or occupant of animal-drawn vehicle
101
2,879,703
37,110

Alcohol
373
779,759
10,048

Fall on and from ladder or scaffolding
417
697,482
8,988

Drowning and submersion while in or falling into swimming pool
515
564,757
7,278

Firearms discharge
730
398,425
5,134

Air and space transport accidents
742
391,981
5,051

Occupant of all-terrain or other off-road motor vehicle
906
321,026
4,137

Drowning and submersion while in or falling into natural water
1225
237,429
3,060

Fall on and from stairs and steps
1,588
183,155
2,360

Exposure to smoke, fire and flames
3,369
86,331
1,113

Motorcycle riding
3,676
79,121
1,020

Assault by firearm
11,920
24,400
314

Motor vehicle accidents
44,757
6,498
84

Source: National Safety Council, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Census, animal attack news reports

*In 1997 in Atlanta, Georgia, one Yerkes primate researcher supposedly died of herpes B after she was splashed in the eye with bodily fluids from a rhesus macaque; this can NOT be classified as animal ‘attack’, just like a nurse or doctor being accidentally infected with a blood from an AIDS patients can not be called a murder.

** Based on 16 year average 1990-2006 numbers

*** Based on 11 year average 1995-2006 numbers

(****)Includes hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, dust storms and other cataclysmic storms.

Note: Exotic animal yearly and lifetime odds numbers were rounded due to their extremely large size for the ease of use and quoting purposes in the media and legislative sessions.

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National Geographic’s Dr. Brady Barr’s Bite Pressure Tests

Dr. Brady Barr of National Geographic (Dangerous Encounters: Bite Force, 8pm est 8/18/2005) – Dr. Barr measured bite forces of many different creatures. Domestic dogs were included in the test.

Here are the results of all of the animals tested:

Humans: 120 pounds of bite pressure

Domestic dogs: 320 LBS of pressure on avg. A German Shepherd Dog, American Pit Bull Terrier (APBT), and Rottweiler were tested using a bite sleeve equipped with a specialized computer instrument. The APBT had the least amount of pressure of the 3 dogs tested.

Wild dogs: 310 lbs

Lions: 600 lbs

White sharks: 600 lbs

Hyenas: 1000 lbs

Snapping turtles: 1000 lbs

Crocodiles: 2500 lbs
Nat. Geo actually did a follow-up on this first special, “The Big Bite II-Dangerous Encounters”. Using the same techniques, Dr. Barr tested some other
animals, including a Hyacinth McCaw(parrot), a Tasmanian Devil, a Savanah monitor lizard, a Nurse shark and a large Alpha male wolf. The wolf’s bite
was a bit over 400 pounds p.s.i, making it the strongest biter of the canids, but the two-pound McCaw nearly equaled that 100+ pound wolf, with a bite force of 375 p.s.i, and it did not appear to be doing anything more than just playing around with the bite meter instrument, as it was a tame bird! In the first bite-force special, the APBT (which DID appear to be biting that sleeve for all it was worth, a good “full-mouth” bite)managed only 127 p.s.i, just seven pounds more than the HUMAN tested! In the second special, Dr. Barr was convinced that the young crocodile he’d tested was not performing up to snuff in its bite, since all the crocodilians he’d tested had all been freshly-caught specimens, which were exhausted after a struggle. He tested the device again on a 18-foot wild male Nile croc, in the wild, unrestrained, that was brumating in a den on an African river bank to escape the daytime heat, by actually crawling down the burrow himself! That animal managed, with a single bite, to exert a pressure of over SIX THOUSAND pounds per square inch, making it the most powerful bite of any animal, ever recorded.

Nat. Geo channel does state that a DVD or CD-ROM of the programming is available upon request. The names of these two documentaries are “Dangerous Encounters: Bite Force” and “Dangerous Encounters: Bite Force 2”, both with Dr. Brady Barr. Here’s a link to Nat. Geo’s customer
service, and they might be able to help; maybe at least transcrips will be available.

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/siteindex/customer.html

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